Previous | Next

January 1972 · Vol. 1 No. 1 · pp. 8–18 

The Spirit and the Age to Come

David Ewert


The early Christian community believed that the last days which, according to the prophets, were to be characterized by an effusion of God’s Spirit, had come upon them. The presence of the Spirit in the believers’ lives was, however, not only an indication that the messianic age had dawned; it was also the ground of a new eschatological outlook. Although they were experiencing the powers of the age to come (by the work of the Spirit), they realized full well that the new age had not yet been consummated, and that the forces of evil were still active in the interim between the inauguration and the consummation of salvation. 1 The outpouring of the Spirit marked the community of believers as belonging to the time-span between the resurrection of Jesus and the parousia, of which the Spirit was a token and pledge. 2

The writings of Paul reflect this understanding of the ‘last days’. To the Corinthians he wrote that the “end of the ages” had come upon them (1 Cor. 10:11)—the old age and the new touched end to end; the close of the old age (the plural here suggests the epochs in it) coincided with the beginning of the new. 3 The expression ‘end of the ages’ (tele ton aionon) is a kind of synonym for the Hebrews qetz jamim ‘end of days’; cf. Dan. 12:13). 4 It is also an equivalent of Peter’s eschatou ton chronon (1 Pet. 1:20) the eschatou ton hemeron and the sunteleia ton aionon of the writer of the Hebrews (1:2; 9:26 respectively), and Paul’s pleroma tou chronou (Gal. 4:4).

Reference should be made at this point to the Jewish concept of the ‘two ages’ (ha ‘olam hazzeh’ and ha ‘olam habba’). ‘This age’ was understood as the age preceding the coming of Messiah. ‘The age to come’ was at times understood as the messianic age here on earth, sometimes as the eternal age which was to begin with the resurrection and the judgment of mankind. 5 Eventually the two ages come to stand for the visible and the invisible worlds. 6

This concept of the two ages is reshaped by Paul in the light of the Christ-event. ‘This age’ has come to an end, and yet it continues (it is the “present evil age,” Gal. 1:4); ‘the age to come’ is here, and yet it has not yet been consummated. And so the two ages overlap, according to Paul. “This mingling of the two ages,” says Schoeps, “constitutes the distinctive eschatological standpoint of Pauline theology.” 7 Properly speaking, as Goguel says, there are three ages in Paul: between the ‘present age’ and the ‘age to come’ there is an intermediate age in which the two coexist. 8

At Pentecost, the Spirit, which was to be the sign and the power of the age to come, moved into the present, assuring the {9} believers that they had entered the new age, and giving them a foretaste of what was to be theirs at the end of the present age.

There was enough in Jesus’ teaching about the End to give the apostles a foundation on which to build this concept of the interim. The attempt of many scholars in the last one hundred years to interpret New Testament eschatology as the product of a revision of Jesus’ teaching in the light of the delay of the parousia is perverse. A.L. Moore in The Parousia in the New Testament, 9 has shown the weakness of this approach rather convincingly (as have Oscar Cullmann and Werner Kümmel in their writings). Granted, the length of the interval between the cross and the parousia had to be extended as time went on, but the basic salvation–historical perspective of the ‘already’ and ‘not yet’ remains in all of Paul’s writings.

When Paul calls the Spirit “the Spirit of promise” (Gal. 3:14; Eph. 1:13). he suggests that the coming of the Spirit has inaugurated the age of ‘fulfilment’—the age which Old Testament prophets, Jewish apocalyptic writers, the sectarians of Qumran, and even the rabbis anticipated. Indeed Paul sees in the coming of the Spirit the fulfilment of the Abrahamic promise (Gal. 3:14). But the Spirit is not only the ‘promised Spirit’, but the Spirit holds promise of good things to come (Eph. 1:13). This tension between the ‘already’ and the ‘not yet’ is felt in a great many Pauline texts that speak of the Holy Spirit.

This gracious, redemptive releasing of the Spirit of the future age into the present is based on the work of Christ. 10 Let us notice, then, first of all, that the Spirit is related to the Dawn of the new age, which began with Christ. Later we shall see that the Spirit is also related to the consummation of this age which Christ inaugurated.


A. The Spirit and the Christ-event. According to Paul, the giving of the Spirit is linked to that great eschatological event at the mid-point of history: the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. 11 The skandalon of the Cross was completely overcome in the minds of the early believers in the light of the resurrection and the coming of the Spirit. According to Gal. 3:13, 14, Christ’s death on the Cross opened up the way for the coming of Spirit (cf. also Rom. 8:1-4). Buechsel in his massive work on the Spirit in the New Testament says, “Voraussetzung fuer Geistempfang ist der Tod Jesu.” 12

Without the resurrection, of course, the Cross would have been a disaster, and so we find that the resurrection and the Spirit are more closely related than the Cross and the Spirit. In Rom. 8:11 we are informed that the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in the believer. In 1 Cor. 6:14 Paul says that God will raise us up by his dunamis just as he raised the Lord from the dead. That dunamis is an equivalent for pneuma is not hard to show from the New Testament. (For a discussion of this usage see H. Bertrams, Das Wesen des Geistes nach der Anschauung des Apostles Paulus.) 13 Another synonym for pneuma is doxa, and it {10} is expressly stated that Christ was raised by the doxa of the Father (Rom. 6:4). G. Vos, who recognizes that the resurrection is ascribed to the Spirit only indirectly, points out that it was affected by the dunamis and doxa of God “both of which conceptions are regularly associated with the Spirit.” 14 Not only is the Spirit thought of as the power at work in the raising of Jesus from the dead, but the post-resurrection life of our Lord is characterized by the Spirit (Rom. 1:4), “designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead.”

In his new mode of existence Christ is also the Dispenser of the Spirit. The Spirit is the gift of the risen Lord. It is through the gift of the Spirit that the believer experiences the presence and the power of the risen Lord in his life. Filson says, “The Holy Spirit is the gift of the risen Christ to the church. This is the central New Testament message concerning the Spirit.” 15 The Spirit receives character and identity through its connection with Jesus Christ, the risen and exalted Lord. The Spirit is the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Rom. 8:9, Phil. 1:19). “The resurrection is the occasion of the liberating of Christ to be a ‘life-giving Spirit’,” says Hill. “This in very personal terms means that Christ is known to be alive because he is experienced today as a power influencing our lives and this living and abiding impact is the Spirit.” 16 The Spirit is the earthly presence of the glorified Lord. The gift of the Spirit is the church’s guarantee that Christ has begun his reign, having assumed authority as he sits at God’s right hand, 17 and this regnum Christi is seen uniquely in the church.

In 2 Cor. 3:17 it appears prima facie as if the exalted Lord is identified with the Spirit (“The Lord is the Spirit”), but the remainder of the verse cautions us against this view (“Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty”). Although frequently the work of Christ and the work of the Spirit are quite interchangeable, the memory of the historical career of Jesus did not permit the fusing of the living Christ with the Holy Spirit in Christian thought and worship. 18 Nevertheless we can safely say that the Spirit describes the manner in which the risen Christ is present in the church today. The expression “The Lord is the Spirit,” “drueckt dynamisch die Praesence u. Wirklichkeit des erhoehten Herrn in seiner Kirche aus.” 19 The Spirit communicates to men the benefits of the risen Christ; it bridges the gap between transcendence and immanence.

Not only is Christ present in the church by the power of his Spirit, but the Spirit enables men to acknowledge and to confess him as Lord. In 1 Cor. 12:3 Paul asserts that no one can say “Jesus is Lord” except by the Holy Spirit. To acknowledge Christ as Lord today is possible only because he died and rose again yesterday. And it implies that he will come tomorrow to judge the quick and the dead. 20

Another way of expressing the conviction that the messianic age, the age of the Spirit, had dawned in Christ was to proclaim that he had established a new covenant and that this covenant was a covenant of the Spirit.


B. The Spirit and the New Covenant. Israel’s national existence, according to the Old Testament, began when God established his covenant with his people. When Israel became apostate, the prophets faced the dilemma of reconciling the fact that Israel had broken the covenant with Yahweh with the fact that Yahweh’s chesed was unchanging. Out of this situation the hopes of a new covenant were born. The locus classicus of this prophetic outlook is Jer. 31.

The coming of the Spirit convinced the early church that this hope had been fulfilled in Christ. The old covenant is described by Paul (2 Cor. 3) as a covenant of the gramma. The new is a covenant of the pneuma—an antithesis which he derives from Jer. 31:33. 21 The apostle goes on (2 Cor. 3:6) to compare the ministry of the old covenant with that of the new, which he calls a ministry of the Spirit. In contrast to the ephemeral glory of the old covenant and its ministry, the ministry of the Spirit has a greater splendor (2 Cor. 3:8).

This contrast between the old and the new covenants is suggested also in the allegory of Gal. 4:21-31. Here Ishmael (representing Judaism) stands at the head of those born kata sarka, whereas Isaac (representing the believers) is the progenitor of those born kata pneuma, who belong to the new age, the ‘upper’ Jerusalem.

C. The Spirit and the Awareness of the New Age. It was only when the Spirit was poured out that the apostles became convinced that by his passion Christ had inaugurated in the new age. Frequently the writers of the New Testament admit that the meaning of the Christ-event lay hidden in God and that it was only now at the turning point of the ages that God’s purposes had come to light (cf. Eph. 1:8, 9; 3:9; Col. 1:26; 1 Pet. 1:20). Paul argues in 1 Cor. 2:7, 8 that only those who have God’s Spirit can understand what God did in Christ. The rulers of this world acted foolishly because they were blind to what God was doing at the Cross. The believers, who have God’s spirit, understand, for “God has revealed it to us through the Spirit” (v. 10). What is more, the Spirit provides the ‘language’ that makes conversation about these truths possible. 22 Christian teaching is done “in words taught not by human wisdom but by the Spirit” (v. 13). The natural man, by contrast, is blind to the significance of what God did in Christ because he lacks God’s Spirit (v. 14).

The reason the leaders did not know what they were doing when they crucified the Lord of glory is that they belong to “this age” (v. 6). The believers who have God’s Spirit (not the “spirit of the world,” i.e., the wisdom of this age, v. 12) now understand the mysteries of God. What former generations did not see is now made known to apostles and prophets “by the Spirit” (Eph. 3:5). But all believers, not only the primary witnesses of the Christ-event, can see what God did when he raised Christ from the dead through “the Spirit of wisdom and revelation” (Eph. 1:17ff). In his second prayer in Ephesians, the writer asked God to strengthen the readers through his Spirit, so that they might be able to comprehend the fulness of God (Eph. 3:16, 19).

By the Spirit the early believers recognized that the new age {12} had dawned, but the Spirit also gave them the assurance that there was more in the offing. The Spirit was but a foretaste of what lay beyond time. Paul prays that his Roman readers might abound in hope “by the power of the Holy Spirit” (Rom. 15:13). The Spirit was the sign that the new age had been inaugurated, that the Christ is present with his own during the interim, and that this age (in which the new and old overlap) will be consummated.


A. The Spirit and the Assurances of Hope.

l. The Sealing with the Spirit. One way of expressing the certainty of the Christian hope is to say that the people of God have been “sealed with the Spirit.” The term occurs three times in Paul (2 Cor. 1:21f; Eph. 1:13; 4:30). In the Old Testament the literal meaning of sphragizo is somewhat more common, but in the New Testament (at times also in the Old) the term is used only metaphorically, in the sense of ‘ratify’, ‘confirm’, ‘attest’. 23 In the three texts in which Paul uses the term it refers to the marking of the believers as God’s property. The Holy Spirit is the mark of the child of God. But the sealing has a reference to the end of the age, for God will deliver all those who have his stamp on them (cf. Rev. 7:4).

The background for the concept of sealing may be seen in tattooing, or in the marking of Cain, or in the marking of Jewish house with blood at the first Passover, or in the marking of the foreheads of the faithful before the judgment (Ezek. 9). The seal of the old covenant, circumcision, must also be taken into account. It is not surprising, since the believers are incorporated into the Christian community by baptism (which is often related to the work of the Spirit), that baptism came to be known as sealing. It does not follow, however, that whenever Paul speaks of the sealing with the Spirit that baptism is meant, as Professor Kirby insists. 24 That sealing has reference to confirmation is just as unconvincing. 25

That the sealing with the Spirit is an assurance of the hope of the believer can be seen in that sealing is used in conjunction with the ‘earnest’ (downpayment) of the Spirit (2 Cor. 1:21f.). It is even more explicitly stated in Eph. 1:13, 14: “In him you also, who have heard the word of truth, the Gospel of your salvation, and have believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit, which is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it.” It is worth noticing here that the sealing with the Spirit takes place when men give ear to the word of truth, the Gospel.

That the sealing has an eschatological reference is borne out even more clearly in Eph. 4:30, where the apostle informs us that we were sealed with the Spirit “for the day of redemption.” The Christ-event, which lies in the past, is made real for us by the Spirit, which also assures us that final redemption awaits us at the end of this age. This word of assurance, however, is coupled {13} with the admonition “grieve not the Spirit!” (Eph. 4:30) Perhaps this is a word of caution not to understand the sealing with the Spirit mechanically, as teaching the unconditional eternal security of the believer.

2. The Earnest of the Spirit. In two of the three passages which speak of the sealing with the Spirit, the Spirit is called the arrabon. If we add 2 Cor. 5:5 to 2 Cor. 1:22 and Eph. 1:14, we have the three passages in which the Spirit is spoken of as the ‘earnest.’ The word arrabon is a Semitic loanword meaning ‘surety’ or ‘pledge.’ In Gen. 38:17, 18 and 20 the substantive is used for the pledge which Judah gave Tamar. As a rule the word occurs as a verb in the Old Testament, but always with the basic idea of surety or guarantee. 26 Nowhere, however, does it signify the partial payment of a money debt. It is as a loan-word in Greek that ‘earnest-money’ becomes more than a pledge; it is a partial downpayment. A pledge is taken back when the contract is fulfilled, but earnest money is payment in advance of full payment. (F.F. Bruce points out that arrabon is used in modern Greek for ‘engagement ring.’) 27

To say that God has given us ‘the arrabon of the Spirit’ (2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5) means that the Spirit is only a foretaste of the fulness that is to come. Eph. 1:14 says essentially the same thing. Arrabon, then, reflects the tension between the ‘already’ and the ‘not yet’ of the believer’s experience in the present. The life of the believer in this age is marked by incompleteness with respect to knowledge, communion with God, and power and freedom in Christian living. The desire for eternal life has not yet been fulfilled. It is on these levels that the Spirit gives anticipation of completeness and fulness. 28 Ahern quotes Theodore of Mopsuestia as defining arrabon as “a sample taste” of the final entry into the inestimable patrimony which the Father has reserved for his sons. 29

3. The Firstfruits of the Spirit. Intimately related to the concept of the Spirit as ‘earnest’ is that of ‘firstfruits’. The background for the metaphor is to be found in the Israelitic cult, where the firstfruits were offered and consecrated to God (Lev. 2:12; Deut. 26:1-11; Ezek. 45:1). The firstfruits were the guarantee that the full harvest would follow, and it is this aspect of the practice that Paul has in mind when he speaks of the Spirit as firstfruits. Through the Spirit the life of the age to come has been made available to us in the midst of the decay and death of this present evil age, but we are not yet experiencing the ‘harvest’ of the new age, just the firstfruits. Since the harvest still lies in the future, the believers groan with the rest of creation; they experience the birthpangs (sunodinei) of the messianic age (Rom. 8:22). “We ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies” (Rom. 8:23). Leenhardt suggests that there are at least three ideas in aparche: (a) a part of the sum total is already present; (b) there is anticipation of more to come; (c) the first installment is the pledge and guarantee of what is to come. 30 Hermann puts it rather beautifully when he says, “Pneuma wird somit fuer die christliche Existenz zur Bruecke zwischen dem von Not bedraengten {14} Jetzt, and dem von der Hoffnung ‘angespielten’ Bald der Vollendung.” 31 The life of the Spirit here on earth does not exhaust the fulness of God’s redemptive gifts, for we share the bondage to decay which afflicts all creation. But the Spirit is the guarantee that when our bodies are redeemed we will share in all the fulness of the age to come.

4. Spirit and Sonship. Paul informs us that “the Spirit bears witness with our spirit that we are the children of God” (Rom. 8:16). Does this mean that God’s Spirit witnesses conjointly with our own consciousness to the fact that we are God’s? I suppose this is what the Reformers meant when they spoke of the testimonium internum Spiritus Sancti. 32 But Theo Preiss objects: “Certitude of being a child of God does not rest on the testimony of our spirit but uniquely on the testimony of God’s Spirit.” 33 But how does he give that certitude if not by corroborating our inner conviction that God has made his children? Also, it appears to be overly precise to say that the witness which the Spirit gives our spirit is audibly expressed in the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (So Michel, Knox, Lagrange). Although sonship is expressed in prayer to the Father, the Spirit witnesses with our spirit by reminding us of God’s love for us, of his promises and by making all the great verities of Christ’s redeeming grace real to us.

Although sonship is a present possession, it is also a hope; “we wait for adoption of sons, the redemption of our bodies” (Rom. 8:23). Final acceptance into God’s family is the Christian’s hope—a hope that will be realized when the physical gives way to the spiritual (1 Cor. 15:44f.).

5. The Spirit and the Love of God. What makes the Christian hope so strong that it bears the believer up in trials and tribulations? (Rom. 5:2-4). It is because God’s love has been poured into his heart by the Holy Spirit (Rom. 5:5). The Holy Spirit gives the believer the assurance that God’s love has been demonstrated in all its fulness in Christ. The Spirit draws men into fellowship with Christ so that the demonstration of his love for sinners is not merely an historical event but a living reality.

6. The Spirit and the Resurrection. In Rom. 8:11 Paul avers that the Spirit which indwells the believers is their assurance that God will raise their mortal bodies. Perhaps the passage is reminiscent of Ezek. 37:14, “I will put my Spirit in you, and you shall live.”

In 1 Cor. 15 Christ, in contrast to the first Adam, is said to have become a life-giving Spirit by the resurrection (v. 45). Implied is that those who belong to him will experience a similar transition from their earthly to their heavenly existence, and will receive a ‘spiritual body’.

We notice, then, that the Holy Spirit is not only the sign of the arrival of the new age, but it is the believer’s assurance of the consummation of the age. The Christian hope is suspended, as it were, between two poles of deliverance—that already attained in Christ, and the other still in the future. The Spirit gives substance to this hope.


B. The Spirit and the Substance of Hope.

1. The Spirit and the Redemption of the Body. We have already observed that the Spirit has sealed the people of God “for the day of redemption” (Eph. 4:30). Although we sigh with anxiety because we are still in this age, we have the hope that what is mortal will be swallowed up by life. “He who has prepared us for this very thing is God, who has given us the Spirit as a guarantee” (2 Cor. 5:4ff.). Assured of the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, Paul could stare death in the face (Phil. 1:19). The Spirit assures us of the redemption of our bodies.

2. The Spirit and Righteousness. Although we have already been justified, “through the Spirit, by faith, we wait for the hope of righteousness” (Gal. 5:5). The believer’s hope of final acquittal before God comes by the work of the Spirit. Of course God’s work never rules out our response, and so Paul adds “by faith.” In contrast to Judaism where justification was thought of as taking place in the end, and where it depended on whether the good works outweighed the bad, Paul argues (particularly in Romans) that justification is a present possession and comes to us as a gift of God’s grace. But, in agreement with Judaism, Paul holds to a judgment that takes place at the end of the age. The difference lies, as Oepke says, in pistis, pneuma, elpis, apekdechomai. 34 Hill says, “The Spirit’s presence and power is the ground of the Christian’s expectation of complete righteousness and final justification.” 35 That will take place when we enter God’s glory.

3. The Spirit and Glory. ‘Glory’ is an eschatological term associated several times with ‘Spirit’. Under the influence of the LXX, where doxa translates the Hebrew kabod, doxa comes to be associated with God’s glorious presence in the midst of his people. This glory, which is enjoyed by the believer proleptically in this age, will be experienced to the full in the future. By the Spirit the believer is transformed from glory to glory (2 Cor. 3:18). Although this passage speaks of the present experience of glory in the life of the believer, the Spirit also lets him have a foretaste of the glory that is yet to be revealed (Rom.8:18). God calls us to share in his glory and in his kingdom (1 Thess. 2:12).

4. The Spirit and the Future Kingdom. In contrast to the Gospels, where ‘kingdom’ occurs some 128 times, the word occurs only 32 times in all the rest of the New Testament. N.Q. Hamilton suggests that in Paul the Spirit takes the place of the basileia of the Gospels, for the Spirit of Christ is the inner dynamic which implements God’s reign. 36 When the word kingdom is used by Paul (e.g., 1 Cor. 6:9; 6:10; 15:50; Gal. 5:21; Eph. 5:5), it usually has a futuristic reference, although it is also seen as a present reality (e.g. Col. 1:13; 1 Cor. 4:20; Rom. 14:17). In Rom. 14:17 the kingdom of God is defined as righteousness and peace and joy “in the Holy Spirit.” These eschatological gifts, says Paul, are more important than arguments about food and drink. From this we can see that although the kingdom of God is an object of hope, the church is already drawn into its incomprehensible power by the Holy Spirit. At the same time the church continues to pray as her Lord taught her, “Thy kingdom come.”


5. The Spirit and Eternal Life. According to the Old Testament, God’s ruach gives and sustains all life. It is not surprising, then, that the bestowal of life should be the central function of the Spirit in the new age. (Reference may be made here to the valley of corpses in Ezekiel’s vision which are revitalized by the ruach of Yahweh—a passage which in Judaism had eschatological significance.) In contrast to the rabbis who taught that the Torah gave life eternal (cf. John 5:29), Paul claims that life is the gift of the Spirit (e.g., Rom. 8:2, 9, 10). Although this life is already experienced in this evil age, eternal life is also a hope, for in this age our life is hidden (Col. 3:4). It is by the Spirit that we reap eternal life (Gal. 6:6). In this brief survey we have tried to show that Spirit is an eschatological concept. What Paul says about the Spirit consistently reflects a polarity of the ‘already’ and the ‘not yet’. This dialectic of the ‘fulfilled’ and the ‘unfulfilled’ characterizes the Christ-event which lies in the past; it explains the tension in which the church lives in the present—the interim between the cross and the parousia. It is also basic to Paul’s understanding of the Christian hope, the parousia, which still lies in the future. The connection between the present (the era of the church), and the past (the death and resurrection of Christ), as well as the connection between the past and present with the future (the parousia) is made meaningful through the work of the Spirit. The solution of the polarity between present and futuristic eschatology lies in the doctrine of the Spirit, for the Spirit is both the sign of the new age, and the guarantee that the One who has begun the good work will complete it on the Day of Christ.



  1. R. Schnackenburg, New Testament Theology Today (Palm Publishers, 1963), p.87.
  2. G.W. Lampe, The Seal of the Spirit (Longmans Green and Co., 1951), p. 46.
  3. J. Hering, The First Epistle of Saint Paul to the Corinthians, trans. A.W. Heathcote and P.J. Allcock (The Epworth Press, 1962), p. 89.
  4. H.L. Strack u. P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud and Midrasch (C.H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1961), III, 416f.
  5. Ibid, IV, 806ff.
  6. H. Sasse, “aion,” TWNT, I, 207.
  7. H.J. Schoeps, Paul, trans. H. Knight (Lutterworth Press, 1961), p. 99.
  8. M. Goguel, “pneumatisme et eschatologie dans le christianisme primitive,” Revue de l’Histoire de Religions, 134 (1946), p. 161.
  9. A.L. Moore, The Parousia in the New Testament (E.J. Brill, 1966).
  10. N.Q. Hamilton, The Holy Spirit and Eschatology in Paul (Oliver and Boyd, 1957), p. 38.
  11. H. Kueng, The Church (Burns and Oates, 1967), p. 164.
  12. F. Buechsel, Der Geist Gottes im Neuen Testament (C. Bertelsman, 1926), p. 429.
  13. H. Bertrams, Das Wesen des Geistes nach der Anschauung des Apostels Paulus (Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1912), p. 29.
  14. G. Vos, “The Eschatological Aspect of the Pauline Conception of the Spirit,” Biblical and Theological Studies (Charles Scribners Sons, 1912), p. 234.
  15. F.V. Filson, Jesus Christ the Risen Lord (Abingdon Press, 1950), p. 163.
  16. D. Hill, Greek Words and Hebrew Meanings (At the University Press, Cambridge, 1967), p. 281.
  17. J.W. Boman, “Eschatology,” in Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, II, 139.
  18. A. Richardson, An Introduction to the Theology of the New Testament (SCM Press, Ltd., 1958), p. 105.
  19. I. Hermann, Kyrios and Pneuma: Studien zur Christologie der paulinischen Hauptbriefe (Koesel Verlag, 1961), p. 51.
  20. O. Cullmann, The Earliest Christian Confessions, trans. J.K.S. Reid (SCM Press Ltd., 1950), p. 64.
  21. G. Schrenk, “grapho,” in TWNT, I, 766.
  22. C.K. Barrett, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Adam and Charles Black, 1968), p. 75.
  23. G. Fitzer, “sphragis,” in TWNT, VII, 943f.
  24. J.S. Kirby, Ephesians, Baptism and Pentecost, (McGill University Press, 1968), p. 153.
  25. G. Dix, The Theology of Confirmation in Relation to Baptism, 1946, and L.S. Thornton, Confirmation: Its Place in the Baptismal Mystery, 1954. {18}
  26. B. Ahern, “The Indwelling Spirit, Pledge of Our Inheritance,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly, 9 (1947), 180.
  27. F.F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Ephesians (Eerdmans, 1961), S.V.
  28. D. Hill, op. cit., p. 272.
  29. Ahern, op. cit., p. 187.
  30. F.J. Leenhardt, The Epistle to the Romans, trans. H. Knight (Lutterworth Press, 1961), p. 222.
  31. I. Hermann, op. cit., p. 33.
  32. A.S. Wood, Life by the Spirit (Zondervan Publ. House, 1963), p. 94.
  33. Theo Preiss, “The Inner Witness of the Holy Spirit,” Interpretation VII (July, 1953), 270.
  34. A. Oepke, Der Brief des Palus an die Galater (J. Gabalda et Cie, 1950), p. 119.
  35. D. Hill, op. cit., p. 273.
  36. N.Q. Hamilton, op. cit., p. 24.
  37. {19}
Dr. Ewert is Professor of New Testament at MB Bible College.

Previous | Next