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Fall 2019 · Vol. 48 No. 2 · pp. 149–160 

Shared Global Mennonite Brethren Convictions: Reflections on the ICOMB Confession of Faith

Doug Heidebrecht

The need for a global Mennonite Brethren (MB) fellowship that facilitated direct relationships among national conferences was raised during the first international MB missions conference held in Curitiba, Brazil, in February 1988. 1 In 1990, the International Community of Mennonite Brethren (ICOMB) was formed. 2 Presently, ICOMB consists of twenty-one member conferences representing nineteen countries with about four hundred and fifty thousand members, as well as over twenty additional networks and emerging conferences on a pathway towards membership. 3

The ICOMB confession affirms that peace and reconciliation are at the heart of the Christian gospel.

In 2004, ICOMB approved an international Confession of Faith as an attempt to express shared global MB convictions that define MB theological identity. 4 For each MB conference, the ICOMB Confession serves as a succinct summary of MB convictions, since each member conference has affirmed this global confession. Some national conferences, like Canada and the United States, hold both to their own confessional statement and to the shared ICOMB confession. 5 The {150} ICOMB Confession also represents MB convictions within the larger Mennonite World Conference (MWC), where the ICOMB family makes up about 30 percent of its membership. 6

Since its formation in 2004, there has been little reflection regarding the character and structure of the ICOMB Confession as an expression of MB convictions. 7 In what follows, I will offer both an introduction and a constructive assessment of the ICOMB Confession with some comparison to the Canadian and US MB confessions.


The idea of a global confession was first raised in 1997 at the annual ICOMB meeting in Kolkata, India, when the question was posed, “What do Mennonite Brethren around the world believe?” 8 In 2001, a task force was commissioned to begin work on a new international confession of faith, which would reflect a shared “global theological statement that can apply in the various local settings” represented by ICOMB and be used as an introduction to the MB family. 9 The seven-member task force, led by Lynn Jost, reflected perspectives from Asia, Africa, South America, Europe, and North America. 10

Initially, the committee considered modeling the ICOMB Confession after the North American MB Confession, until Takashi Manabe from Japan observed, “Europeans and North Americans have a cultural tendency to work with doctrines and philosophies. We Asians and Africans have a cultural tendency to communicate with stories. We need to base the international confession on a narrative format. The Bible itself gives good examples in this regard.” 11

A two-part confession was then created, beginning with a narrative that answers the question, “How does God work in the World?” This was followed by five sections answering, “How do Mennonite Brethren respond to God’s purpose?”—MBs are “People of the Bible,” “People of the New Way of Life,” “People of the Covenant Community,” “People of Reconciliation,” and “People of Hope.”

The final draft of the confession was translated into different languages and distributed to individual ICOMB conferences, who unanimously accepted it prior to its final approval at the June 2004 ICOMB meeting in Asuncion, Paraguay. 12 This common confession was not intended to replace national confessions but rather “to guide national conferences in formulating confessions specific to their own cultures and to define MB positions for national churches that have inquired about joining the denomination.” 13 ICOMB leaders clearly stated that “there should be no contradiction between a national Confession and the ICOMB Confession,” which should be used as a guideline for any revisions at a national level. 14 {151}

In 2006, the development of a commentary on the ICOMB Confession was initiated, with Elmer A. Martens and Peter J. Klassen, both from Fresno, California, appointed as editors. 15 Sixteen authors, representing eight nations, introduced the various sections of the Confession through stories, exploring what the Bible teaches, and reflecting on how MBs should then live. Knowing and Living Your Faith: A Study of the Confession of Faith was published in 2008.


It is immediately apparent that the ICOMB Confession varies in length from its North American counterparts. The ICOMB Confession is only a third of the size of the North American MB confessions (1,421 words compared to 4,315 and 4,330 words in the Canadian and US confessions, respectively). This variance is also reflected in the number of biblical references used to support the confessions—the ICOMB Confession lists eighty-three biblical references (12 from the Old Testament and 71 from the New), while the North American MB confessions identify 396 (Canadian) and 400 (US) biblical references (93 and 95 from the Old Testament and 303 and 305 from the New Testament).

How does God Work in the World?

The ICOMB Confession begins with a narrative of what God is doing in the world, which is essentially a description of the missio Dei, sketching God’s missional actions of deliverance and sending, from creation to the formation of the new creation. 16 This is a powerful picture that provides a succinct summary of the overarching biblical story. While the North American confessions’ portrayal of the triune God in Article 1 may appear different at first glance, the use of biblical images and language provides a surprisingly similar narrative flow. 17

The ICOMB narrative highlights several major themes in its telling of the story of what God is doing. First is the identity of God, who is introduced in each of the first three paragraphs (out of a total of five). God is initially presented as the “sovereign Lord of all” who created the heavens and the earth as well as humans in his image. 18 In response to rebellion, “God, the Deliverer” acts. The triune identity of God is revealed when “God the Father sent the Son, Jesus Christ” and “God sent the Holy Spirit.” 19 However, the trinitarian nature of God remains implicit, almost vague, in stark contrast to the rich description of the triune God in the North American confessions. For example, the declaration that God is one (Deut 6:4) is missing. There is also no attention given to Jesus’s divine identity as the image of the invisible God (John 1:1; Col 1:15; Heb 1:3) or regarding his role in creation (John 1:2-3; Col 1:16; Heb 1:2). A {152} more vigorous biblical portrayal of the nature of God as Trinity, which is centered in Jesus’s deity, is critical in light of the numerous heretical challenges facing the global church.

Central to the biblical story is the revelation of both God’s character and his actions (Exod 34:6-7). While the ICOMB description of God’s character (as faithful, just, righteous, merciful, and compassionate) is tied specifically to its expression in the Old Testament prophets, essential aspects of his very nature—God is love (1 John 4:7-9); God is holy (1 Pet 1:15-16); God of peace (2 Cor 13:11)—are missing. Nowhere in the narrative does it say, “God loves”! The seemingly cursory reference to the church living out God’s love and peace, does not adequately emphasize the direct relationship between God’s own character and his actions. A robust portrayal of God’s character expressed in his actions is necessary in order to provide a vision for how the church should live, given the scriptural appeal to imitate God (Matt 5:9; Eph 5:1-2; 1 John 4:10-12).

Another significant theme in the ICOMB narrative is the nature of sin and salvation, which is framed in three interwoven ways. First salvation is defined in relation to God’s rule or reign, although specific “kingdom” language is not used. Humanity’s abuse of freedom, rebellion, and disobedience opens the door for the “evil powers of Satan, sin and death” to claim control over the world. Jesus responds to the evil powers’ “rebellion against God’s rule” by inaugurating the reign of God and gaining victory over them through his exaltation to God’s right hand so he can rule forever. In the end, “Satan and those who have rejected Christ will face eternal condemnation [but] the new heaven and new earth will live under God’s rule.”

Second, salvation is described in relation to creation. The effect of the evil powers on God’s good creation is death; however, God offers the hope of a new creation. By dying on the cross, Jesus reconciles creation to God and is victorious over death when God raises him from the dead. When Christ returns, “the new creation will be completed,” all who belong to Christ will rise with a new body, and “the new heaven and new earth will live under God’s rule.”

Third, salvation is expressed as reconciliation with God. In response to the disobedience and alienation caused by sin, God delivers people so they might live in relationship with him and experience his blessing. Jesus called for repentance of sin and announced the release of the oppressed and proclaimed good news for the poor. Jesus died for the sins of the world in order to reconcile creation to God, in order that all creation will eventually experience everlasting peace and joy.

While there is overlap with the pairings of Satan (rebellion) and the reign of God, death and new creation, sin (disobedience and alienation) and reconciliation, their juxtaposition highlights how God’s work in {153} the world addresses the need of the whole creation for salvation. In many ways, the language used in the ICOMB narrative echoes how the North American confessions describe the nature of sin and salvation. However, the ICOMB Confession is more limited in its use of atonement images (deliver, gain victory, reconcile, redeem, save), with several key images noticeably absent (justify, sacrifice, atoning blood, adopt, heal, forgive). 20 On the other hand, the substitutionary nature of Jesus’s death is highlighted—Jesus died “for the sins of the world.” The means of receiving salvation, by grace through faith, clearly involves repentance, faith, and confession of Jesus as Lord.

The final major theme emphasized in the ICOMB narrative is the church, which is depicted as central to God’s work of salvation. Beginning with Israel, God acted to form a covenant people; then Jesus called disciples to follow him as a new community; and finally, the Spirit established the church as the body of Christ. The nature and mission of the church is also expressed through the interwoven strands of God’s reign, new creation, and reconciliation. The church is “to proclaim the reign of God” and “model God’s design for humanity” by promoting righteousness and sharing generously with those in need. The church is defined as God’s new creation; but it must also “witness to the new creation” by serving as an “agent of transformation.” Finally, the church is to call “everyone to repentance and conversion” through its role as an agent “of reconciliation to reverse the alienation brought on by sin.”

In the ICOMB narrative, the description of the church involves the four major clusters of biblical images or metaphors—people of God, community of disciples, new creation, and body of Christ. 21 Nevertheless, the confession focuses primarily on the church’s missional engagement rather than on its life and ministry as a covenant community. For example, there is no acknowledgement of the need for healthy interpersonal relationships (Col 3:12-17), the gifting of the Spirit for ministry (1 Cor 12:4-11), or participation in prayer and worship (Eph 5:18-20).

How do Mennonite Brethren Respond to God’s Purpose?

The second part of the ICOMB confession is introduced with the declaration that Mennonite Brethren commit themselves “to be a people of God.” The five responses that follow define MB identity: People of the Bible; People of a New Way of Life; People of the Covenant Community; People of Reconciliation; and People of Hope. Each response except the final one begins with a defining statement, followed by several more specific topics. The narrative and additional topics address, in some way, sixteen of the eighteen articles in the North American confessions. 22

It is noteworthy that nowhere does the ICOMB confession say, “we believe”; instead it declares who Mennonite Brethren are as a people. 23 {154} This fits well with the language of “convictions” used by the Mennonite World Conference, which suggests that an individual’s or community’s identity is defined by their lived commitments or persuasions. 24 Shared convictions guide a community’s beliefs and shape its corporate life.

The two-part structure of the ICOMB Confession highlights the complementary relationship between how God works in the world (Part 1) and the MB response (Part 2), which extends the narrative theologically and practically. This relationship, however, implies that the response should flow directly from the narrative. Several of the responses—New Way of Life, Covenant Community, and Reconciliation—clearly emerge from the narrative; however, the correlation with the first response, “People of the Bible,” is less clear. While the narrative briefly refers to God communicating his law and purposes through the prophets and the Spirit’s inspiration of the Scriptures, what exactly is it that MBs are responding to as a people? This might be more evident if the narrative highlighted God’s self-revelation through both the Living and Written Word, as well as through the ongoing leading of the Spirit through the Scriptures.

People of the Bible

Curiously, the opening statement about the Bible reverses the order of Scripture’s attributes typically used by MBs—“The Bible is the authoritative Word of God and the infallible guide for faith and life” (ICOMB) versus “We accept the Bible as the infallible Word of God and the authoritative guide for faith and practice” (North American MB confessions). It is unclear why this change was made, particularly since MB confessions have historically used “infallible” to modify “Word of God,” which has then been seen as compatible with “inerrancy” language in later debates about the nature of the Bible. 25 The issue of authority seems to relate better with how the Bible functions, thus it seems like a more appropriate description of how the Scriptures serve as a guide for faith and life.

Three topics are addressed under “People of the Bible”: Worldview; Interpretation; and Community of Interpretation. The affirmation that the Bible creates a shared worldview by providing a framework for understanding the world is an incredibly helpful addition that is not stated in the North American confessions. However, this points to the need for further work in defining what a biblical global perspective might entail, which could express a shared MB understanding across various cultural contexts. Mennonite Brethren contend that the interpretation of the Scriptures must be “Christ centered” but also read together in community, “since the Holy Spirit is present and active in all believers.” A reference to the presence of the “Spirit of Christ,” guiding the community through {155} Scripture, would better connect the practice of interpretation with a Christocentric approach.

People of a New Way of Life

The strength of the opening statement is that it links conversion, discipleship, and the Spirit’s ongoing renewal (sanctification), thus effectively uniting the new birth with new life. While the call to a “new way of life” is alluded to in the narrative (“born anew”), it is not explicitly stated. The emphasis on the work of the Holy Spirit calling people to a new way of life and renewal stands in contrast to the narrative’s depiction of the people of God calling “everyone to repentance and conversion” and the church as the “agent of transformation.” The narrative’s focus on the active missional involvement of the church, rather than the ongoing dynamic work of the Spirit, seems to be misplaced since the focus in the story is specifically on what God is doing in the world.

The discussion of conversion acknowledges the need for a response of personal commitment and repentance but does not highlight the need for belief (faith) and confession, which is how the narrative defines the means of salvation. Furthermore, the call to turn from a broken relationship with God and bondage to sin, while perhaps alluding to the evil powers, does not recognize the power of death and Satan, which is emphasized in the narrative. Highlighting the new life of the Spirit (Rom 8:9-11) along with the renunciation of Satan’s claims through the confession of Jesus as Lord would further engage these themes.

The focus on discipleship in the context of interdependence within the church is significant and highlights the repeated focus on covenant community within the narrative. Surprisingly, in both the discipleship and renewal sections, the Spirit’s work of transforming believers into the image of Christ is entirely absent. The activist focus on disciples’ own efforts to “prove ourselves faithful to the life and teachings of Jesus” and the Spirit’s empowerment for believers’ “witness and service” does not include the corresponding attention to identity development and character transformation.

People of the Covenant Community

The opening statement on the church as a covenant community highlights exactly what was missing in the narrative—the life and ministry God’s people expressed through worship, prayer, fellowship, and mutual care. The discussion of baptism affirms the diversity of the church across cultures, nations, and languages, which may be better placed within the narrative itself. Baptism is portrayed as an act of the church for those who “confess Jesus as Savior and Lord” and express a willingness to follow Jesus as disciples. While incorporation into the church is affirmed, the {156} witness of what also took place at conversion is not acknowledged—that is, being washed (inherent in the meaning of “baptism”) and cleansed from sin by the Spirit (Titus 3:5), being raised to new life, and freed from the power of sin and death (Rom 6:2-11).

The statement on the Lord’s Supper provides a rich explanation of its meaning and practice, focusing on the past (identifying “with the life of Christ given for redemption”), the future (proclaiming “the Lord’s death and resurrection until he comes”), and the present (“reconciliation, fellowship, peace, and unity of all believers with Christ”). The narrative defines the Lord’s Supper as a celebration of the new covenant, which is now experienced by the covenant community.

The discussion about accountability begins with a powerful affirmation: “the church interprets God’s will, discerning what is right and what is wrong.” This statement alludes to Jesus’s “binding and loosing” teaching in Matthew 16 and 18, but it appears to stand in tension with the earlier statement on the Bible that “every believer is encouraged to seek to understand the Bible in order to discern God’s will for obedience.” The resolution of this tension may emerge from the active presence of the Spirit in “all believers” where “all believers” are mutually accountable. The reference to the church excluding those who “consistently disregard discipline” may be better located prior to the stated intention “to heal and restore through repentance,” which would then frame even exclusion as a redemptive act and not as punishment or condemnation.

The statement about the priesthood of all believers locates servant leadership in the context of the gifting of all believers by the Spirit, expressed as a function of mutual service, in order to equip people to use their gifts to serve the church. The implied vision of leadership in the church challenges cultural models that value power and authority as essential for effective leadership.

People of Reconciliation

The response regarding reconciliation offers a powerful integration of the church’s mission and peace witness that addresses both the family and the state. The “church is called to participate in the God’s mission” (missio Dei), which is defined by the three-fold reconciling mission of Jesus (with God, each other, and the world). Jesus’s announcement of the Kingdom of God frames both mission and peace within this larger theme and introduces “kingdom” language for the first time in the ICOMB Confession, picking up the earlier narrative’s references to God’s rule/reign. That there is no reference to the work of the Spirit in this entire section is surprising, particularly given the narrative’s recognition of the Spirit’s work in witness and the extensive biblical portrayal of the Spirit’s role enabling and leading the church in its participation in God’s mission. {157}

The Great Commission (Matt 28:19-20) and the Great Commandment (Matt 22:37-40) frame what mission entails: the making “disciples of all nations.” This also involves the holistic integration of proclamation and service. Jesus is affirmed as “the only way of salvation,” and all believers are called to share the good news. The attempt to affirm a holistic approach to witness by stressing what the church says and does could be further complemented with a focus on what the church is—the church’s testimony reflecting the transforming work of the Spirit.

The confession affirms that peace and reconciliation are “at the heart of the Christian gospel.” Jesus’s call to be peacemakers (Matt 5:9) is linked with the church’s ministry of reconciliation (2 Cor 5:18-20), which calls people both to peace with God and peace with each other. Peace and reconciliation are to be lived out in daily life choices that move disciples of Christ away “from hating enemies and ignoring neighbors” to nurturing “wholeness, healing, joy, peace . . . love and justice.” While there is no direct engagement with the question of participation in war, this positive center leaves no room for participating in acts of violence.

The focus on the family and state under the rubric of reconciliation highlights both its relational and public nature. The confession blesses singleness, affirms marriage as a “covenant commitment of one man and one woman,” and “calls all people to live a sexually pure life.” The church’s role in nurturing family life and actively seeking to reconcile troubled relationships is encouraged. The state’s responsibility to “promote the well-being of all people” is also affirmed and the church is called to respect and pray for government authorities. However, the church must also “resist the temptation to give the state the devotion that is owed to God” since its primary allegiance is to Christ’s kingdom.

Christians are challenged to “cooperate with others, defend the weak, reduce strife, care for the poor, and promote justice, peace and truth.” This is the third time in this section that the church is called to show love and justice, a theme also echoed several times in the earlier narrative, where churches are portrayed as “agents of transformation” and “agents of reconciliation.” Unfortunately, this emphasis doesn’t acknowledge that the biblical vision is first about the church’s transformation (Rom 12:2; 2 Cor 3:18), which, as the new creation (2 Cor 5:17), is being renewed according to the image of its Creator (Eph 4:22-24; Col 3:10-11). 26 The church’s witness, being a transformed people, is integral to Mennonite Brethren participation in God’s mission.

People of Hope

The final section is much shorter in length and does not follow the same structure as the first four responses. It begins with the acknowledgement that the church “belongs to the in-breaking Kingdom of God,” which {158} models an alternative community that challenges godless cultural values. This appeal to be the church is now placed alongside the encouragement (again) to “join in the struggle for justice” and continue to engage in mission. In the face of challenge and opposition, the church must be prepared to suffer persecution, yet there is confidence and hope that “sin, guilt and death will not prevail.” It is unclear why “guilt” is included here instead of “Satan,” which would better parallel the narrative’s depiction of the defeated evil powers. The final statement points again to the certainty that “God will create a new heaven and a new earth.”

This final section essentially recaps what has already been affirmed in the ICOMB narrative, except perhaps for the attention it gives to hope. Again, there is no mention of the Holy Spirit. Much more could be said here that would move beyond the narrative and express a more vibrant MB response. An intentional approach to challenging cultural values, a courageous theology of suffering, and a perspective of God’s end time justice and judgment would be helpful contributions.


The ICOMB Confession of Faith expresses shared Mennonite Brethren convictions that reflect a global theological identity. The two-part structure offers a unique and helpful way of grounding a particular people’s convictions within the biblical and missional narrative of how God works in the world. However, the ICOMB Confession of Faith functions not only as an expression of MB convictions and identity but also as a vision for faithful discipleship and as a corporate witness to the gospel of Jesus Christ. 27 To this end, continuing engagement as an MB community regarding the nature and structure of the confession is not only valuable but critical. The above reflections highlight the need for a more robust narrative, one able to provide a vision for a shared Mennonite Brethren identity. At the same time, greater attention to the precision and consistency of language and theology would strengthen and clarify the link between who Mennonite Brethren are and the mission of God in the world.


  1. “A Brief History of the Formation of ICOMB,” ICOMB, accessed November 25, 2019,; and Victor Adrian, “Introduction,” in Committed to World Mission: A Focus on International Strategy, ed. Victor Adrian and Donald Loewen (Winnipeg, MB: Kindred, 1990), 11–12.
  2. “A Brief History of the Formation of ICOMB,” {159}
  3. “About,” ICOMB, accessed November 25, 2019,
  4. The ICOMB Confession is currently available in fifteen languages. These include Burmese, Chichewa, English, French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Kituba, Lao, Lingala, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Telugu, and Thai.
  5. In 1999, the Canadian and US MB conferences affirmed a newly revised Confession of Faith, comprised of eighteen articles, just before the dissolution of the jointly shared General Conference structure in 2002. Since then, the two conferences have chosen to hold separate confessional versions, although the only differences to date involve the USMB revision of Article 13 (Love, Peacemaking and Reconciliation) in 2014 and a current Canadian MB Conference process revising Article 8 (Christian Baptism). For copies of the North American confessional statements, see Confession of Faith of the Canadian Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches (Winnipeg, MB: Kindred, 2018); “The MB Confession of Faith Detailed Edition,” Canadian Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches, accessed November 25, 2019,; and “Confession of Faith,” USMB (U.S. Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches), accessed November 25, 2019,
  6. See “Map and Statistics,” Mennonite World Conference, accessed November 25, 2019, In 2006, the Mennonite World Conference developed a brief statement of “Shared Convictions.” See “Shared Convictions,” Mennonite World Conference, accessed November 25, 2019, MB theologian Alfred Neufeld from Paraguay, who also served on the ICOMB Confession task force, developed these convictions in more detail. See Alfred Neufeld, What We Believe Together: Exploring the “Shared Convictions” of Anabaptist-Related Churches (Intercourse, PA: Gospel Books, 2007).
  7. See Doug Heidebrecht, “Confessing Our Faith: The Significance of the Confession of Faith in the Life of the Mennonite Brethren Church,” in Renewing Identity and Mission: Mennonite Brethren Reflections after 150 Years, ed. Abe J. Dueck, Bruce L. Guenther and Doug Heidebrecht (Winnipeg, MB: Kindred, 2011), 141–53.
  8. “A Historical Note,” in Knowing and Living Your Faith: A Study of the Confession of Faith, ed. Elmer A. Martens and Peter J. Klassen (Winnipeg, MB: ICOMB/Kindred, 2008), 128.
  9. Minutes of the ICOMB Annual Meeting, July 22–24, 2001, 5; Minutes of the ICOMB Annual Meeting, July 28–30, 2002, 2.
  10. The confession task force consisted of Arthur Dück (Brazil), Pascal T. Kulungu (Congo), Menno Joel (India), Lynn Jost (USA), Heinrich Klassen (Germany), Takashi Manabe (Japan), and Alfred Neufeld (Paraguay). See “A Historical Note,” Knowing and Living Your Faith, 128, 129.
  11. Barkam Isaac Premaiah and Lynn Jost, “God’s Redemptive Story,” in Knowing and Living Your Faith, 17. Manabe provided several biblical examples of narrative confessions: Joshua 24:2–15; Psalms 105, 106, 136; Nehemiah 9:5–37; and Acts 7:2–53. {160}
  12. Minutes of the ICOMB Annual Meeting, June 21–23, 2004, 6.
  13. “A Historical Note,” Knowing and Living Your Faith, 129.
  14. Minutes of the ICOMB Annual Meeting, July 5–8, 2009, 2.
  15. Minutes of the ICOMB Annual Meeting, July 10–13, 2006, 6.
  16. MB missiologist Hans Kasdorf observes that the mission of God is evident through the actions of God. See Hans Kasdorf, “Missio Dei: Historical and Theological Perspectives” (CMBS, No. 30), 2.
  17. Part 1 of the ICOMB Confession corresponds to articles 1, 3–6, and 18 of the North American confessions.
  18. All unidentified quotations are taken from the ICOMB Confession of Faith.
  19. The trinitarian baptismal formula (Matt 28:19) is also referenced in paragraph three.
  20. “Justification” language is also missing from the North American confessions. See Doug Heidebrecht, “Atonement in the Mennonite Brethren Confessions of Faith,” Direction 41 (Spring 2012): 18–33.
  21. See John E. Toews, “The Nature of the Church,” Direction 18, no. 2 (Fall 1989): 3–26.
  22. The articles not covered include Article 14—The Sanctity of Human Life and Article 16—Work, Rest and the Lord’s Day.
  23. David Wiebe, former ICOMB Executive Director, made this observation in personal conversation with the author.
  24. See James Wm. McClendon, Jr. and James M. Smith, Convictions: Defusing Religious Relativism, rev. ed. (Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press, 1994), 5.
  25. See “Mennonite Brethren 1902 Confession of Faith,” in One Lord, One Church, One Hope, and One God: Mennonite Confessions of Faith in North America, ed. Howard J. Loewen (Elkhart, IN: Institute of Mennonite Studies, 1985), 173; and Confession of Faith of the General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches (Hillsboro, KS: Board of Christian Literature, 1976), 12. Interestingly, see page 7 in the introduction to the 1975 Confession where it refers to “the Holy Scriptures as the infallible guide for faith and practice.” See also “Resolution on Inerrancy,” Yearbook: General Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches, 57th Session (Winnipeg, MB: Christian Press, 1987), 44–46; and John E. Toews, “Mennonite Brethren Biblical Seminary and the Battle for the Bible 1977–1982,” Direction 42 (Fall 2013): 229–50. The compatibility of “infallible” and “inerrancy” is affirmed in Article XI in the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy. See “The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy,” in Evangelicals and Inerrancy, ed. Ronald Youngblood (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1984), 237.
  26. See Doug Heidebrecht, “Be Transformed!” MB Herald, April 2015, 12–14.
  27. See “Nature and Function of the Confession,” Confession of Faith of the Canadian Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches (Winnipeg, MB: Kindred, 2018), i–ii.
Doug Heidebrecht (PhD, Wales) serves as the Director of Global Training and Associate Professor of Mission and Theology at MB Seminary and also works in an international setting.

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